When and Where to Charge EU VAT on Digital Services

When and Where to Charge EU VAT on Digital Services

Read our guide to when and where you should be charging VAT on digital services in the EU.

For businesses operating in the digital economy, navigating the complexities of value-added tax (VAT) regulations can be a daunting task. The European Union (EU) has specific rules and guidelines governing the taxation of digital products and services within its member states.

Understanding when to charge VAT on electronic supplies and digital services is crucial to comply with the law, avoid potential penalties, and maintain a positive relationship with customers. In this post, we explore the key aspects of VAT for the supply of digital goods and services sold within the EU, including the rules, thresholds, and exemptions that businesses need to consider.

Understanding the VAT rules for digital services

The first step is understanding VAT as it relates specifically to the supply of cross-border digital services in the EU. In 2015, the EU implemented new regulations that require digital service sellers and providers to charge VAT based on their consumer's location rather than their own physical location. This means that if you sell digital services to consumers within the EU, you must adhere to the VAT rules of each individual EU country.

Determining whether your services fall under the umbrella of "digital services" is crucial. According to the EU guidelines, digital services include a wide range of online and electronically supplied services such as software downloads, mobile applications, online streaming services, music, e-books, online courses, and webinars. Other services, such as physical goods sold online or services performed in person, are not considered digital services for VAT purposes.

To assess whether you fall within the scope of digital services tax, you should carefully review the guidelines provided by the EU. Additionally, consulting with a tax professional who specializes in VAT for those who sell digital services can help ensure that you accurately assess your VAT obligations.

Who is affected by EU VAT rules?

Understanding the VAT rules for digital services

The EU VAT rules for selling digital services apply to any business, regardless of its location, if they sell digital products to consumers within the EU member states. This means that even if your business is based outside of the EU, you're still required to comply with VAT regulations if you have customers within the EU.

It's important to note that the rules apply not only to large corporations but also to small businesses and individual entrepreneurs. Whether you are a freelancer offering online courses or a small software development company selling licenses to EU customers, you must adhere to the VAT rules for digital services.

Failure to comply with VAT regulations can result in penalties and legal consequences. Therefore, it's vital to understand your obligations and take the necessary steps to ensure compliance.

VAT registration requirements for digital service providers

Once you've established that your business falls within the scope of digital services and is subject to VAT regulations within the EU, the next step is to determine whether you need to register for VAT.

If your total sales of digital services to EU customers are below the VAT registration threshold (€10,000 turnover) as set by the EU, you may not be required to register for VAT. However, even if you don't need to be VAT registered, you're still expected to keep track of your sales and comply with the VAT rules of each member state where your customers are located.

On the other hand, if your sales exceed the VAT registration threshold, you must register for VAT in every EU country where your customers are located. This can be a complex process, as all countries in the EU have their own VAT registration procedures. To simplify the VAT registration process, businesses have the option of enrolling in the One Stop Shop (OSS) scheme, which we will discuss in more detail later in this guide.

Registering your business for VAT ensures that you're legally compliant and can issue VAT invoices to your customers. It also allows you to claim back any VAT you have paid on business-related expenses. Consulting with a tax professional or using specialized VAT compliance software can help streamline the VAT registration process and ensure accurate tax reporting and invoicing.

Determining the place of supply for digital services VAT

The place of supply rules is the cornerstone of VAT on digital products. These rules determine the country where businesses should charge VAT and where it should be paid. For B2C (business-to-consumer) transactions, the place of supply is generally the consumer location. On the other hand, for B2B (business-to-business) transactions, the place of supply is typically the location of the supplier. However, there are some important exceptions and conditions to consider:

B2C Transactions

  • If the customer is located within the EU, VAT must be charged at the rate applicable in the customer's country.
  • If the customer is located outside the EU, no VAT is applied.

B2B Transactions

  • If the supplier and customer are both located within the EU and the customer provides a valid VAT identification number, no VAT is charged; instead, the transaction is subject to the reverse charge mechanism, and the customer accounts for the VAT in their own country.
  • If the supplier is located within the EU, and the customer is located outside the EU, no VAT is applied.

VAT rates for digital services in EU member states

One of the most challenging aspects of charging VAT on digital services is determining the correct VAT rates for relevant services in each member state. The VAT rates for digital services can vary significantly, ranging from the standard rate to reduced rates and even exemptions for certain types of services provided.

Every country in the EU has its own VAT rate schedule, and it's crucial to understand and apply the correct rates to your transactions. Failing to charge the correct VAT rate can result in under or overcharging VAT, which can have financial and legal implications.

To determine the correct VAT rate for a specific member state, you should consult the official VAT guidelines provided by the tax authorities of that country. These guidelines usually outline the applicable VAT rates for various types of digital services. Additionally, using VAT compliance software that is regularly updated with the latest VAT rates can help ensure accurate calculations.

VAT OSS: simplifying VAT compliance for digital service providers

VAT OSS: Simplifying VAT compliance

To simplify the VAT compliance and payment process for those who supply digital services, the EU has introduced the One Stop Shop (OSS) system. The OSS allows EU businesses to submit a single VAT return and payment for all their digital product supply and sales within the EU, rather than registering for VAT in individual EU countries.

Under the OSS system, you register for VAT in your home country (businesses not established in the EU can choose which member state to register in) and submit a quarterly or bi-annual VAT return that includes all your digital service sales to customers in other EU member states. Your home member state then distributes the VAT payments to the respective member states.

The OSS scheme significantly reduces the administrative burden of VAT compliance for digital platforms and service providers, especially for small businesses and individual entrepreneurs. It allows you to focus on your core business activities while ensuring compliance with VAT regulations.

To benefit from the OSS system, you must register for OSS in your home country. The registration process may involve an online registration form and providing certain information about your business and its digital sales. Once your business is registered, you can start using the OSS system to report and pay VAT on your digital sales within the EU.

Exemptions and reduced VAT rates for certain digital services

While most digital services are subject to VAT, there are certain exemptions and reduced VAT rates that apply to specific types of services. These tax exemptions and reduced rates aim to support certain industries or promote cultural and educational activities.

For example, in some member states, e-books, online newspapers, and certain educational services are subject to reduced VAT rates or even exempt from VAT altogether. It's essential to familiarize yourself with the specific exemptions and reduced rates that apply to your digital services in each EU country where you have customers.

To determine whether your services qualify for exemptions or reduced rates, consult the VAT guidelines provided by the tax authorities of individual EU countries. Additionally, seeking advice from a tax professional who specializes in VAT for digital services can help ensure that you correctly apply any exemptions or reduced rates for electronic services that may be available to you.

Special cases: broadcasting and telecommunication services

Apart from the general rules for digital products supplied, broadcasting and telecommunication services have their own unique VAT regulations. The "use and enjoyment" rule applies to these services, which means that if the service supplied is effectively used and enjoyed outside the EU, no VAT is charged.

VAT reporting and record-keeping obligations for digital service providers

As a digital platform or service provider, you have certain reporting and record-keeping obligations regarding VAT. It's essential to stay organized and maintain accurate records to comply with EU regulations and facilitate any future audits or inquiries.

You should keep a record of all your VAT transactions, including invoices issued and received, VAT returns filed, invoice amount, and any supporting documentation such as proof of customer location. Additionally, you should retain these records for a specified period, typically six years, as required by EU regulations.

When registering and reporting VAT, you must submit accurate and timely VAT returns to the tax authorities. The frequency of VAT returns varies depending on the country and your VAT registration status. Some member states require monthly returns, while others may allow quarterly or bi-annual returns.

To simplify the VAT reporting and filing process, consider using VAT compliance software platforms that can generate electronic VAT returns based on your recorded transactions. This can save you time and minimize the risk of errors or omissions.


Complying with VAT regulations on the supply of digital products is vital for businesses that operate within the European market. Understanding the place of supply rules, VAT thresholds, OSS, and potential exemptions or reduced rates is crucial to ensuring smooth transactions and avoiding any legal issues.

As VAT rules are subject to frequent updates and can vary between EU member states, it's advisable for businesses to seek professional advice and stay up-to-date with the latest developments. By doing so, businesses can not only stay compliant but also build trust with their customers and foster sustainable growth in the dynamic digital marketplace.

Do you need help with your VAT compliance? Book a free call with one of our VAT experts to find bespoke solutions for your business, optimize your VAT costs, and reach millions of new potential customers.

April 17, 2024
Test text
Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries
Test text
Test text
Test text
Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s,
Test text
when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries
Test text